Description: This passage is mainly about what is active transport. In this passage, the writer tells us the differences between active transport and passive transport, active and passive transport are biological processes that move oxygen, water and nutrients into cells and remove waste products.
Welcome back. Welcome to another tutorial from Shomu’s biology. In this passage, we’ll talk about the differences between active transport and passive transport. First, if you want to learn more about what fast transport is and what active transport is, I will recommend you read my passage on active transport and passive transport separately.
This is a conclusion type passage where we drive the difference and compare between the passive transport and active transport. Let us talk about the major difference. The major difference between active and passive transport is in the process. Passive transport occurs when the concentration of molecules are high from one side and low on the other side.
Those solute molecules start to flow from high concentration down the concentration gradient to the low concentration. For example, there is a cell, let me draw it, let us say the concentration of a new train for example, glucose that is present outside the cell in very high concentration and very low inside.
So according to the diffusion mechanism, we know that molecules and solutes start to move from the high concentration gradient to the low concentration gradient until they reach a balance as the requilibrium in the concentration, so here those glucose molecules start to move, they move from outside to inside of the cell and down the concentration gradient from high to low.
So as you are moving from high concentration to the low concentration, we do not require any excess energy for that, so there is no energy required solutes flow from high concentration to the low concentration, this is known as passive transport, we are talking about transport of molecules across the membrane.
Now here is also across the membrane, this could be also from inside the cell to the outside, but the major thing is from high concentration to the low concentration and we do not need any ATP there, in the second case of active transport, the scenario is slightly different, now we need some vital nutrients, even a small part of the nutrient is very important.
Though we have high concentration of that nutrient inside the cell and low concentration outside, but we still need to uptake that nutrient, so now if we need to take this nutrient inside the cell, we need to go from a low concentration to a high concentration which is against the concentration gradient.
If you flow from high to low, you don’t need any energy, but here we are flowing from low to high, so we need energy and ATP acts as the energy currents inside the cell, so ATP is required to push the solute materials from low concentration to the high concentration against the concentration gradient.
This is the scenario of active transport, so in the passive transport, molecules move from high concentration to the low concentration, in the active transport, molecules move from the low to the high concentration and it needs ATP, while in the passive transport we do not need any ATP, now this is what the major difference look like.
Now let us talk about some more characteristics, such as functions, what are the functions of passive transport with active transport? The function of passive transport is to maintain a dynamic equilibrium of gaseous molecules liquid molecules and nutrients in the cell in our body, all the time our cell membrane is dynamic itself.
So the gaseous substances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and some nutrients sources such as monosaccharides, they tend to move in and go out of the cell all the time to maintain a specific dynamic equilibrium, and whenever a equilibrium reaches, the whole process of passive transport will stop.
But what is the function of active transport? The role of active transport is to drive a specific materials, even beyond these limitations, even beyond those dynamic equilibrium, so they do not follow equilibrium in active transport, the idea of active transport is everything in the equilibrium, so let me write it here.
In this case we follow dynamic equilibrium, while in active transport, there is no dynamic equilibrium, even if the cell is in the equilibrium place where all the nutrients and gases are there, but there are some nutrients coming in and cell wants to uptake that, and if the cell takes those nutrients, it is going to destroy the equilibrium, because there will be too many nutrients inside the cell for that time.
Now the cell do that in this case of active transport, so they do not bother about maintaining the equilibrium, here they uptake or put out of or spread out some of the materials from the cell, or inside the cell to outside or from outside the cell to inside, even beyond the equilibrium to maintain specific concentration of nutrients or gaseous or liquids, whether it is high or low inside the cell.
That is the idea in the active transport, so there is no equilibrium, now if we look at the example, it is going to be much clearer for you, if we talk about in passive transport, the transport of small molecules such as small ions can easily pass through, but they need a specific type of proteins to be embedded in the cell membrane.
They are known as the ion channels or channel proteins, the movement of small potassium ion or transport of all those ions or transport of monosaccharides, such as glucose, some transporter protein diffusion of oxygen diffusion of carbon dioxide and all these molecules are mostly in the passive transport.
All those types of lipid soluble materials can easily pass through the membrane or even it is not a lipid soluble, even it is a very small molecule, they can also be transported with the help of some channel proteins presented in the membrane, so that is the example, so that example is diffusion of oxygen, carbon dioxide and uptake of glucose.
These are some examples while the example of active transport is exocytosis in the exercises or endocytosis, endocytosis will be phagocytosis, energy consuming process or sodium potassium, ATP pump sodium potassium, ATP pump or the transport of sodium potassium is as an anti-pot mechanism that is the active transport process, because it requires ATP.
Now the third thing that we want to talk about is the importance of passive transport and active transport, now the importance of passive transport as I have told you earlier, it helps with maintaining that dynamic equilibrium inside the cell, so in most of the cases, the delivery of oxygen inside the tissue, the delivery of nutrient and glucose inside the cell, those things are maintained by the passive transport.
Because it is required for a normal cell to grow and divide, because they need oxygen, they need those glucose and even carbon dioxide accumulated inside the cell, it should be pushed away from the cell with the help of the passive transport itself, now what is the importance of active transport? Active transport is required for the generation of different neural potentials, it is an action potential in our neurons and in our brains to think about different stuff.
They are involved in some active transport passive transfers all together, and the role of active transport can be exocytosis or endo psychosis where our large materials are present large proteins of lipids which we cannot deal in the passive transport mode, we cannot take those molecules with the help of active transport.
With the help of endocytosis process, we also kill an engulf foreign bad materials, they are infective agent bacteria, eukaryotic cell can engulf that and break them down inside the cell for that, then it will engulf it via the mode of phagocytosis which is also a type of active transport, so this is the role of active transport.
So according to the functionality and importance, if we compare the importance of both transports to either take some nutrients or remove some toxic materials from the body from the cell, but the way that they do the function is different, in the case of passive transport they must do this for small molecules, but in the case of active transport they do that for large molecules.
These are the differences between passive transport and active transport. I hope this passage will help you. If you like this passage, please hit the like button and subscribe to my channel and share this passage with your friends, because this is going to help them. Thank you.